Informace a dezinformace

Článek obsahuje stručné doložení rozdílu mezi pojmy informace a dezinformace a dopad tohoto faktu na možné hodnocení chování jedinců v rámci společnosti.

Reakce na článek Ivy Zadražilové v Inflow 07/01/2008

Hledání toho, co je opakem informace vedlo Evu Zdražilovou k zajímavým a užitečným úvahám zda opakem informace je nic, nebo spíše dezinformace. Intuitivně dospěla ke správnému názoru, že dezinformace. Tento závěr je možné podpořit i neintuitivním rozborem.

Každý čin jakékoli bytosti, tedy i člověka, je výsledkem rozhodnutí, které je důsledkem procesu řízení. Podle definice je řízení takový proces, který ovlivňuje nějaký předmět či subjekt tak, aby bylo dosaženo požadovaného cíle. To je možno realizovat způsobem nazývaným ovládání nebo způsobem nazývaným regulací (viz názvoslovná norma regulační techniky). Regulace je proces, který využívá zápornou zpětnou vazbu (v lidské společnosti je to princip demokracie), zatím co řízení probíhá bez zpětné vazby (v lidské společnosti je to vnímáno jako diktatura). Důležité pro princip řízení (jakéhokoli) je, že musí mít cíl řízení, který je konfrontován se vstupními informacemi a na základě zpracování rozdílu cíle a skutečného stavu je pak vydán povel, který by měl tento rozdíl odstranit.  

pravděpodobný stav = chaos

nepravděpodobný stav = organizace

+

ENTROPIE

INFORMACE

DEZINFORMACE

ŽIVOT

SMRT

Děje v přírodě se obecně odehrávají ve dvou směrech. Jeden směr je charakterizován nárůstem entropie systému a tedy nárůstem chaosu, zatímco druhý směr naopak vede k poklesu entropie, tj. k růstu organizovanosti. Všechny živé organizmy mají schopnost rozvoje a sebezdokonalování a tedy umí snižovat entropii systému. Otázka však je jestli tuto schopnost vždy využívají. Tady je možno konstatovat, že až na výjimky sebezničení a v ohraničeném prostředí vlastního „Já", ji vždy využívají, v prostředí neohraničeném to platí s výjimkou člověka, který se tomu často a rád vymyká, to znamená, že rád hrabe „pod sebe či pro sebe".

Člověku byla dána svobodná volba mezi dobrem a zlem a k tomu svědomí, aby se mohl orientovat. Zvířata, pokud je mi známo, tuto volbu nemají, protože jsou řízena instinktem, tj. programem k dosažení cíle přežití. Tento program je přírodou natvrdo implementován a zvíře není schopno jej měnit, i kdyby tím paradoxně mělo dojít k ohrožení jeho života. Čili, zvířata nemají volbu cíle a nemají volbu strategie, podle které se budou rozhodovat. Člověk však tuto možnost má. A  tak tedy, když si za cíl zvolí něco, co bude mít za následek nárůst entropie systému jako celku (směr chaos), stane se jeho informace dezinformací (viz obrázek). Při volbě cíle člověka hraje velkou roli jeho svědomí, tj. podvědomé vnímání směru nárůstu a poklesu entropie celku a intuitivní preference poklesu entropie. Pokud člověk (obvykle deprivovaný) nadřadí pokles entropie pro svou osobu poklesu entropie celku, stává se z něj škůdce systému života a jeho osobní zisky jsou vyvažovány systémovými ztrátami, což je dnes zřejmé nejen v mezilidských vztazích, ale i v ekologii. Všichni zločinci a teroristi patří do této kategorie deprivantů.

Nakonec si položme ještě otázku jaký je rozdíl mezi nepravdou, lží, polopravdou a desinformací. Na základě toho, co již víme, to bude celkem snadné. Nepravda je neúmyslná odchylka od pravdy na základě omylu či technické závady a vede ke zvýšení entropie systému. Lež je nejčastěji výsledek obranné reakce, chce ukrýt pravdu - může vést ke zvýšení entropie systému, ale někdy pouze zachovává status quo, které však určitě není chvályhodné. Desinformace je aktivní zásah pro dosažení negativního cíle, který vede vždy k nárůstu entropie systému. Z morálního hlediska je horší než lež. Cíl polopravdy je v podstatě stejný jako u desinformace. Na rozdíl od dezinformace je však v polopravdě vždy část, která je pravdivá (a která ztěžuje odhalení lži). Z morálního hlediska je to tedy ta morálně nejpokleslejší kategorie. Dezinformace může být tvořena polopravdou i naprostou lží.

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13. 8. 2019

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Obrázek uživatele Anonym
Anonym
13. 8. 2019

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Obrázek uživatele Anonym
Anonym
13. 8. 2019

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