Jak (ne)fungují komunity

11. 8. 2014

Komunity jsou různá uskupení živočichů nebo rostlin, jejichž členové spolupracují na stejném cíli. V tomto příspěvku se budu zabývat komunitami lidskými.

Český Encyklopedický slovník definuje komunitu jako „souhrn osob, které žijí v určitém vymezeném prostoru, kde vykonávají každodenní aktivity a obvykle tvoří autonomní jednotku“ (Barták, 1993).

V současném chápání komunit můžeme o komunitách říct, že jsou to seskupení lidí, kteří se setkávají fyzicky, nebo v online prostředí za účelem zdokonalení svého okolí, naučení se nějaké dovednosti, ale i sdílení již získaných znalostí.  

Jedním z příkladů komunit vznikající za určitým účelem jsou komunity zabývající se sdílením dovedností v určité oblasti. Tyto komunity se anglicky nazývají communities of practice. Lidé v těchto komunitách sdílejí své poznatky a dovednosti za účelem rychlejšího rozvoje daného tématu. To vede k možnosti dostat se v daném problému více do hloubky a nalézt nové možnosti.

Aby mohly komunity pro sdílení dovedností fungovat a dokázaly společný problém vyřešit, musí mít dle profesorek Lathleanové a le Mayové z univerzity Southampton následující:

  • existenci a sdílení společného cíle
  • existenci a užívání znalostí k tomu, aby společenství dosáhlo tohoto cíle
  • povahu a důležitost vztahů vytvářejících se mezi lidmi v tomto společenství
  • vztahy mezi tímto společenstvím a těmi, kteří stojí mimo toto společenství 
  • vztahy mezi prací společenství a hodnotami, které svými aktivitami vytvářejí

(Lathlean, le May, 2009)

Později Etienne Wenger přidal k těmto myšlenkám ještě doporučení, že by pro commuties of practice mohly být stanoveny kompetence nutné k vykonávání určitých úkonů a tyto kompetence by bylo možné definovat kombinací tří částí:

  • společná iniciativa
  • oboustranné závazky
  • sdílený soubor společných zdrojů.

(Wenger, 2007)

Aby komunita mohla fungovat, musí splňovat výše uvedené podmínky, které určili vědci. Na následujících příkladech se pokusím vystihnout, jak rozdílné a křehké komunity mohou být. 

Představme si skupinu pěti kamarádů, kteří se každou středu scházejí v kulečníkovém baru a hrají billiard. Každý z nich má zájem být lepší než ti ostatní, ale chápe, že pokud nebudou dobří i jeho kamarádi, bude sice vyhrávat, ale nezahrají si. Proto před každou hrou provádí různá cvičení. Tato cvičení si hledají na internetu a pak je prezentují kamarádům. Všechno klape pár měsíců, ale pak se se stane něco, co ohrozí dosavadní život komunity. Jednomu  z kamarádů se narodí dítě a chápe nutnost své přítomnosti doma, takže dává přednost rodině před kamarády. Již na pravidelná setkání nechodí pravidelně a tak si přítelkyně druhého člena řekne, že když není nutné aby chodil pravidelně první kamarád, nemusí pravidelně chodit ani „ten její”. A tak se stane, že z pěti kamarádů chodí pravidelně jen tři. Třetí kamarád dostane nabídku v práci, ve které by za více peněz dostal lepší místo, ale musí kvůli tomu dojíždět autem a to ho natolik vyčerpává, že na kulečník nemá ani pomyšlení. Tak pravidelně hrají již jen dva a zlepšují se natolik, že si s těmi co hrají nepravidelně moc nezahrají a oni dva znají navzájem své taktiky tak dokonale, že je to taky přestane bavit. 

Toto je jeden z mnoha možných scénářů.

Dalším příkladem může být komunita maminek, které se potkávají a nechávají své děti, aby si hrály spolu. Děti odrostou a maminky se přestanou stýkat. Podobně tomu může být u komunit hrající určitou hru. Hra se ohraje, zestárne a přestane být pro lidi zajímavá a znova dochází k rozpadu komunity. 

Můžeme říct, že v rámci komunit se potkávají různé typy lidí, kteří mají menší nebo větší zájem na tom, aby komunita fungovala, a proto se snaží do ní zapojovat. V momentě, kdy mají pocit, že se komunita ubírá jiným směrem, než si oni představují, přestává pro ně být komunita zajímavou a věnují jí čím dál méně času. 

V komunitě by se člověk měl cítit svobodný, ale musí si uvědomovat, že svoboda není anarchie a že je nutné při rozhodování brát zřetel na dopad našeho rozhodnutí. Pokud se lidé budou chovat v komunitách zodpovědně, budou fungující a zodpovědné i jednotlivé komunity a její členové budou pyšní na to, že jsou jejich členy.

 

Zdroje:

BARTÁK, Jan. Encyklopedický slovník. Praha: Encyklopedický dům, 1993.

Lathlean, Judith a le May, Andrée. Communities of practice: an opportunity for interagency working. Journal of Clinical Nursing [online]. 2002, vol. 11, no. 3 [cit. 2009-03-21], p. 394-398. 

WENGER, Etienne. Communities of practice learning, meanings, and identity. 15. ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 05-216-6363-6.

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